Research: Manipulation Techniques

Exercise 2.2 required the creation of a paper manipulation library and this is a list of the possible techniques to be used over the course of this module:

Slashing – essentially using a knife to cut through the paper however this handout on Slash: Paper under the knife from the Museum of Art and Design shows the breadth of work that can be created from this technique.

Melting – more appropriate to synthetic fabrics as paper burns rather than melt. Kim Thittichai’s blog Hot Textiles shares many interesting techniques on combining textiles and heat to produce a variety of effects.

Tearing – creates textured edges

Laminating – the process of using an adhesive to bond two layers of textiles. Commonly seen when plastic covering is applied to paper etc.

Pleating – a type of fold where the material is doubled back on itself (common in garment construction)

Bending – creates 3D forms

Lining – as far as I understand this is the process of putting a secondary material under the art/work to support it structurally (unless I come across another meaning)

Shredding – easiest method is to put the material/paper through an office shredder which creates small pieces that can then be recombined to create a new surface.

Folding – putting creases in to create texture

Cutting – less ‘violent’ version of slashing. Could be used in appliqué etc

Coating – the process of applying another substance to the material

Twisting – deforming in 3 dimensions

Unfolding – Complement to the process of folding, creases will generally remain to show the history/past of the material.

Curling – similar to twisting but generally twisting would be along the direction of the fabric whereas curling is perpendicular to the surface of the material. Using the blade of a scissor can encourage curling.

Drilling – create holes with a drill

Twirling – also known as quilling? Paper is curled into tight quills and shaped to form designs

Scoring – using a blade to cut partway through paper, usually done to help fold paper neatly.

Tessellating – repeat pattern but also a form of origami which uses repetition of folds to create textures as seen here.

Punching – using a ‘punch’ or fixed shape craft cutter (most common being hole punch) to create identical holes/shapes in the material

Grazing – I imagine in this context it means to scrape or break the surface of the material.

Pricking – similar to punching but usually a needle is employed instead.

Crushing – applying pressure to paper

Wrapping – winding a thread or other material around the base

Scratching  – similar to grazing but more likely to be a small pointed tip

Creasing – placing a line deformation in the structure of the material.

Rolling – similar to curling but often a larger surface area.

Crackling – applying a coating and then creasing can creating crackling of the surface coating.

Scuffing – similar to grazing? Usually a rough mark created on a smooth surface (like shoes on a waxed floor).

Crumpling – creates irregular creases in the paper

Knotting – action of tying knots in a material

Tufting – passes threads through a material (often upholstery) to create depressions in the surface.

Burning – applying heat to (partially) destroy the material

Sanding – use of sanding paper to create texture/roughness to surface.

Dipping – placing material in a liquid (often containing dye)

Sandwiching – according to Creating Decorative Papers by Paula Guhin sandwiching is coating thin papers and layering them together using acrylic medium. Often use translucent papers to build up layers or include materials in between translucent layers.

Raising – akin to embossing? creating a raised texture using embossing tools or other forms of relief

Layering – whereas sandwiching is often associated with a small number or layers, layering can in theory have an unrestricted number of layers.

Tying – similar to knotting but can form elaborate/decorative shapes as in the Japanese art of Mizuhiki

Stabbing – similar to piercing but has connotations of less control.

Wetting – similar to dipping but liquid can be applied to more specific areas and cause buckling in restricted areas.

Growing – paper can be impregnated with seeds so that when it is planted/discarded the seeds grow.

Breaking – destructive process – firmer materials?

Covering – similar to wrapping although has connotations more akin to draping and loose material

Moulding – use of a substrate or wetting method to encourage a material to take the form of the item it is being placed on/in.

Puncturing – similar to piercing and stabbing to create small holes in a material.

Bashing – using a hammer to hit a flower on paper encourages the natural dyes to impregnate the paper.

Weaving – process of intertwining two perpendicular threads/strips to create a fabric

Felting – nuno felting is a method of combining wool roving with open weave fabric to create a textured background. This is a technique I discussed with Jenny O’Leary when I met her at the Knitting and Stitching show 2018. Her technique of creating small nuno felted pieces that she embroidered and then pieced together was practical and yet stunning when finished.

[All links accessed on 16/12/18]

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